An application program interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. An API specifies how software components should interact.

API key

An application programming interface key (API key) is a code passed in by computer programs calling an application programming interface (API) to identify the calling program, its developer, or its user to the Web site.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence or AI refers to software technologies that make a robot or computer act and think like a human.

Asymmetric relationship

Lacking symmetry. When the relationships between the two terms are different in one direction than in the reverse direction, e.g. relationship between 'Apple' and 'Fruits'. All Apples are Fruits, but all Fruits are not Apples.



A measurement of the quality of an organization's policies, products, programs, strategies, etc., and their comparison with standard measurements, or similar measurements of its peers.

Boolean Logic

Boolean Logic is a form of algebra which is centered around three simple words known as Boolean Operators: “Or,” “And,” and “Not”.

Business Expansion

Business Expansion is a stage where the business reaches the point for growth and seeks out for additional options to generate more profit. Different forms of business expansion include an opening office in another location, adding sales employees, increased marketing, adding franchisees, forming an alliance, offering new products or services, entering new markets, merging with or acquiring another business, expanding globally and expanding through the internet.

Business Intelligence (BI)

Business intelligence (BI) is the collection of processes, technologies, skills, and applications used to make informed, data-driven business decisions. BI includes data collection, data aggregation, analysis, and meaningful presentation that facilitates decision-making.

Business war-gaming

Business war-gaming provides an opportunity for executives to vicariously experience future events in the present.



The cloud is a term referring to accessing a computer, information technology (IT), and software applications through a network connection, often by accessing data centers using wide-area networking (WAN) or Internet connectivity.

Clustering is the process of grouping a set of data objects into multiple groups or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters.

Company Profile
A company profile is a professional introduction of the business and aims to inform the audience about its products and services.

Competitive Intelligence (CI)
Competitive intelligence refers to information collected by a company about rival businesses and markets, which may then be analyzed to create more effective business strategies moving forward.

Competitor Analysis
Competitor analysis in marketing and strategic management is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors. This analysis provides both an offensive and defensive strategic context to identify opportunities and threats.

Competitor Profile
Competitor profile is about finding out and processing data about competing businesses or products to generate the key information about them, categorize them and identify their key competitive differences.

Controlled Vocabulary
It is a  list of terms to be used in indexing (human or automated). It is used to ensure consistent tagging of information. The terms in controlled vocabulary do not necessarily have any structure or relationships between them.  It may include preferred and non-preferred variant terms and has a defined scope or describes a specific domain. A controlled vocabulary is the broadest category in information organisation concepts, which includes thesaurus, taxonomy, and ontologies. All thesauri, taxonomies, and ontologies are controlled vocabularies, but not all controlled vocabularies are thesauri or taxonomies or ontologies.

A copyright is a collection of rights that automatically vest to someone who creates an original work of authorship – like a literary work, song, movie or software. These rights include the right to reproduce the work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies, and to perform and display the work publicly.

Corporate Espionage
Corporate Espionage is the unlawful theft/acquisition of intellectual property, such as key trade secret and patent information as well as industrial manufacturing techniques and processes, ideas and formulas.

A crawler is a program that visits Web sites and reads their pages and other information to create entries for a search engine index.


Dashboards are single screens with critical information which give your users a unified view of the data that matters.

Data Classification
Data classification is the process of sorting and categorizing data into various types, forms or any other distinct class.

Data Deduplication
Data deduplication is a technique used to reduce the amount of storage space an organization needs to save its data. In most organizations, the storage systems contain duplicate copies of many pieces of data.

Data Mining
Data mining is a process used by companies to turn raw data into useful information. By using software to look for patterns in large batches of data, businesses can learn more about their customers to develop more effective marketing strategies, increase sales and decrease costs.

Data Scraping
Data scraping, also known as web scraping, is the process of importing information from a website into a spreadsheet or local file saved on your computer. It’s one of the most efficient ways to get data from the web, and in some cases to channel that data to another website.

Data Warehouse
A data warehouse is defined as a technique for collecting and managing data from varied sources to provide meaningful business insights. It is a blend of technologies and components which aids the strategic use of data.

Database is an organized collection of data. More specifically, a database is an electronic system that allows data to be easily accessed, manipulated and updated.

Deep Learning
Deep learning is an artificial intelligence function that imitates the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for use in decision making.

Deep Web
The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard web search engines. The opposite term to the deep web is the surface web, which is accessible to anyone using the Internet.

Disambiguation refers to the removal of ambiguity by making something clear.


Environmental Scanning

Environmental scanning is the process of gathering information about events and their relationships within an organization's internal and external environments. The basic purpose of environmental scanning is to help management determine the future direction of the organization.

Expert Systems

An expert system is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to simulate the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field.



A firewall is a software used to maintain the security of a private network. Firewalls block unauthorized access to or from private networks and are often employed to prevent unauthorized Web users or illicit software from gaining access to private networks connected to the Internet.


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet over TCP/IP connections. FTP is a client-server protocol that relies on two communications channels between client and server: a command channel for controlling the conversation and a data channel for transmitting file content.


Google Alerts

Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service, offered by the search engine company Google. The service sends emails to the user when it finds new results—such as web pages, newspaper articles, blogs, or scientific research—that match the user's search term.


Hosting Server

A hosting server is a generic term for a type of server that hosts or houses websites and/or related data, applications and services. It is a remotely accessible Internet server with complete Web server functionality and resources.


Human intelligence (HUMINT) is defined as any information that can be gathered from human sources.



Indexing is a way to optimize the performance of a database by minimizing the number of disk accesses required when a query is processed.

Intelligence Analysis

Intelligence analysis is a process of collecting and generating intelligence from multiple sources such as data and information. The process usually involves accumulating information about a variety of circumstances and individuals who know that include strategy, operations, or tactical intelligence.


Key Performance Indicators

A Key Performance Indicator is a measurable value that demonstrates how effectively a company is achieving key business objectives. Organizations use KPIs at multiple levels to evaluate their success at reaching targets.

Knowledge Base

A knowledge base is a centralized repository for information: a public library, a database of related information about a particular subject. Concerning Information technology (IT), a knowledge base is a machine-readable resource for the dissemination of information, generally online or with the capacity to be put online.

Knowledge Management System

A knowledge management system (KMS) is a system for applying and using knowledge management principles. These include data-driven objectives around business productivity, a competitive business model, business intelligence analysis and more.


Machine Learning

Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it to learn for themselves.

Market Intelligence (MI)

Market intelligence is the monitoring of specific data streams to provide stakeholders with a holistic view of an industry segment or customer base.

Market Research

The process of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information about a market, about a product or service to be offered for sale in that market, and about the past, present and potential customers for the product or service.

Mergers and Acquisition

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is a general term used to describe the consolidation of companies or assets through various types of financial transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, consolidations, tender offers, purchase of assets, and management acquisitions.


Metadata is data [information] that provides information about other data. Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata, and statistical metadata.

Mobile Compatible

The term mobile compatible means that a site can be viewed and used on a mobile device. This basic endorsement of a site for mobile use is different than another similar term, mobile-optimized, which means that designers have built-in design features that make a site user-friendly for mobile users.


Named Entity Recognition (NER)

Named-entity recognition (NER) refers to a data extraction task that is responsible for finding, storing and sorting textual content into default categories such as the names of persons, organizations, locations, expressions of times, quantities, monetary values and percentages.

Natural Language Programming

NLP is a way for computers to analyze, understand, and derive meaning from human language in a smart and useful way. By utilizing NLP, developers can organize and structure knowledge to perform tasks such as automatic summarization, translation, named entity recognition, relationship extraction, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, and topic segmentation.



It is a kind of thesaurus with even more complex relationships between terms. These relationships are not just limited to broader/ narrower and related. There can be any number of relationships and more specific in function. For example, a relationship between a company and a city could be 'located in'; a company and a product could be 'produces/ produced by'; a company and a person could be 'employs/ employed', etc. In an ontology, not only do the terms have meanings, but the relationships themselves have meanings as well. These are called semantic relationships.

Open Source Information

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.



A paywall is a feature of a website or other technology that requires payment from users to access additional content or services.

Predictive Analytics

Predictive analytics is the practice of extracting information from existing data sets to determine patterns and predict future outcomes and trends.

Press Release

A press release is an official announcement of something newsworthy in the most objective way possible.

Primary Research

Primary research is defined as a methodology used by researchers to collect data directly, rather than depending on data collected from previously done research.

Private, or Proprietary Information, or Trade Secret

Proprietary information, also known as a trade secret, is information a company wishes to keep confidential. Proprietary information can include secret formulas, processes, and methods used in production.



A RESTful API is an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data.


RSS, standing for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary, uses several standard web feed formats to publish content in a structured XML file for syndication. An XML file in this format is called an RSS Feed. This format allows the automatic syndication of data and the XML file ensures compatibility across numerous machines and programs.



Software as a service (SaaS) is a model for the distribution of software where customers access software over the Internet.

Scenario Planning

Scenario planning is making assumptions on what the future is going to be and how your business environment will change overtime in-light of that future.

Scope Note

Scope notes are a way to put a restriction on meaning.

Search Engine

This is a service that allows Internet users to search for content via the World Wide Web (WWW). A user enters keywords or key phrases into a search engine and receives a list of Web content results in the form of websites, images, videos or other online data.

Search Operators

A search operator is a character or string of characters used in a search engine query to narrow the focus of the search.

Secondary Research

Secondary research is a process of gathering research data using data scanning techniques from already available resources.

Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment analysis is contextual mining of text which identifies and extracts subjective information in the source material and helping a business to understand the social sentiment of their brand, product or service while monitoring online conversations.

Single Sign-On (SSO)

Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits an end-user to enter one set of login credentials (such as a name and password) and be able to access multiple applications.

Social Media Analytics

Social media analytics is the process of gathering and analyzing data from social networks such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.

Social Media Listening

Social media listening, also known as social media monitoring, is the process of identifying and assessing what is being said about a company, individual, product or brand on the Internet.


A stakeholder is either an individual, group or organization who is impacted by the outcome of a project. They have an interest in the success of the project and can be within or outside the organization that is sponsoring the project.

Stemming/ Truncate

Truncation, also called stemming, is a technique that broadens your search to include various word endings and spellings. To use truncation, enter the root of a word and put the truncation symbol at the end. The database will return results that include any ending of that root word.

Strategic Decision

Strategic decisions are the decisions that are concerned with the whole environment in which the firm operates, the entire resources and the people who form the company and the interface between the two.

Strategic Early Warning

A Strategic Early Warning System aims to assist organizations in dealing with discontinuities or strategic surprises. By detecting weak signals, which can be perceived as important discontinuities in an organizational environment, SEWS allows organizations to react strategically ahead of time.

SWOT Analysis

S.W.O.T. stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. A SWOT analysis is an organized list of your business’s greatest strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.


Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person through writing it down or verbalizing it.


It is a controlled vocabulary with a hierarchical structure. Terms within a taxonomy have these relations with other terms in the taxonomy: parent or broader term, child or narrower term. Equivalent synonyms may or may not exist in a taxonomy. 

A term in taxonomy may be repeated at more than one place within the taxonomy if it has multiple broader terms. This is referred to as a polyhierarchy (not recommended in hierarchical taxonomies). 

Another type of taxonomy comprises multiple sub-taxonomies or "facets", whereby the top-level node of each represents a different type of taxonomy, attribute, or context. E.g. one facets could be competitors, and another could be business concepts such as partnerships. By combining the tags (nodes) in the two facets, we can find partnerships by any one (or more) competitor. This is call post-coordinated searching, whereby the user chooses a combination of nodes from different facets to retrieve the right information.

Text Analytics

Text analytics is the process of deriving meaningful data and insight from unstructured text.

Text Mining

Text mining is the process of exploring and analyzing large amounts of unstructured text data aided by software that can identify concepts, patterns, topics, keywords and other attributes in the data.


A thesaurus is a more structured type of controlled vocabulary that provides information about each term and its relationships to other terms. These relationships are of three kinds: hierarchical (specific or narrower terms and broader terms); associative (related terms); and equivalent (synonyms or alternative expressions and possibly even antonyms). Also, these terms have scope notes that are brief descriptions of how the term should be used in indexing. In a thesaurus, the focus is more on individual terms than on the whole hierarchy. E.g. each term can have multiple broader term but such "polyhierarchies" will cause problems in a Taxonomy. Thesaurus is more useful for a relatively large controlled vocabulary that involves human indexing because a term in thesaurus has more details than in a simple controlled vocabulary or taxonomy.

Trend is a general movement or flow of an event or phenomenon over time, measured as the general direction (up or down) and the rate of change.


Unstructured Information

Unstructured information is information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner. Unstructured information is typically text-heavy but may contain data such as dates, numbers, and facts as well.

User Analytics

User Analytics is a login tracker for Admins to keep track of their Daily Active Users.


Visualization is the process of representing data graphically and interacting with these representations to gain insight into the data.


Web Scraping

Web Scraping is a technique employed to extract large amounts of data from websites whereby the data is extracted and saved to a local file in your computer or to a database in a table (spreadsheet) format.

Web Spider

A Web crawler is an Internet bot that helps in Web indexing. They crawl one page at a time through a website until all pages have been indexed.


A Webhook API (also called a web callback or HTTP push API) is a way for an app to provide other applications with real-time information. A webhook delivers data to other applications as it happens, meaning you get data immediately.


White labeling is when a product or service removes its brand and logo from the end product and instead uses the branding requested by the purchaser.



XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. It is a text-based markup language derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). XML tags identify the data and are used to store and organize the data, rather than specifying how to display it like HTML tags, which are used to display the data.


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